Beneficial Reuse

“Beneficial Reuse” is an industry term used to describe the repurposing of coal ash in other products, or the reuse of coal ash for another purpose. Products can include concrete, asphalt, bowling balls, housing shingles, makeup. Other uses include “mine reclaimation,” backfill, grit on icy roads, road bedding.

Boiler Slag

Boiler slag is the molten bottom ash collected at the base of slag tap and cyclone type furnaces that is quenched with water. When the molten slag comes in contact with the quenching water, it fractures, crystallizes, and forms pellets.

Bottom Ash

Bottom ash is part of the non-combustible residue of combustion in a furnace or incinerator. In an industrial context, it usually refers to coal combustion and comprises traces of combustibles embedded in forming clinkers and sticking to hot side walls of a coal-burning furnace during its operation.

CCR — Coal Combustion Residual

A spoil tip (also called a spoil bank, boney pile, gob pile, bing, batch or pit heap) is a pile built of accumulated spoil – the overburden or other waste rock removed during coal and ore mining.

CCS — Carbon Capture and Storage

Carbon capture and storage (CCS) (or carbon capture and sequestration), is the process of capturing waste carbon dioxide (CO2) from large point sources, such as fossil fuel power plants, transporting it to a storage site, and depositing it where it will not enter the atmosphere, normally an underground geological formation. The aim is to prevent the release of large quantities of CO2 into the atmosphere (from fossil fuel use in power generation and other industries). It is a potential means of mitigating the contribution of fossil fuel emissions to global warming[1] and ocean acidification.[2] Although CO2 has been injected into geological formations for several decades for various purposes, including enhanced oil recovery, the long term storage of CO2 is a relatively new concept. The first commercial example was Weyburn in 2000.[3] ‘CCS’ can also be used to describe the scrubbing of CO2 from ambient air as a geoengineering technique.

Clean Air Act

The Clean Air Act is a United States federal law designed to control air pollution on a national level. It requires the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to develop and enforce regulations to protect the public from airborne contaminants known to be hazardous to human health.

Clean Water Act

The Clean Water Act (CWA) is the primary federal law in the United States governing water pollution.


Rock-like bottom ash that is usually black and shiny. In the 1800s, jewelry was made out of it.

Coal Ash

Coal ash is the hazardous waste that remains after coal is burned.


to make impure or unsuitable by contact or mixture with something unclean, bad, etc.; to render harmful or unusable by adding radioactive material to —

Fly Ash

The finely divided residue resulting from the combustion of ground or powdered coal, which is transported from the firebox through the boiler by flue gases. Flyash is a by-product of coal-fired electric generating plants.

Gob Pile

A spoil tip (also called a spoil bank, boney pile, gob pile, bing, batch or pit heap) is a pile built of accumulated spoil – the overburden or other waste rock removed during coal and ore mining.


Aka, FGD Gypsum, is a unique synthetic product derived from flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems at electric power plants.


Another term often used for “pond” when describing coal ash waste ponds.


The N.C. Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) is the lead stewardship agency for the preservation and protection of North Carolina’s outstanding natural resources.

Reclaimation (like mine reclaimation)

The idea is to return a mined area to the way it was before it was mined. This rarely happens. Where coal ash is concerned, “mine reclaimation” refers to the practice of stuffing an old mine full of coal ash and likely seeding it with grass.


Coal slurry or sludge is a waste fluid produced by washing coal with water and chemicals prior to shipping the coal to market. When coal is mined underground or by highwall or auger miners, there are significant amounts of rocks and clays mixed in.

Smoke Stacks

A chimney or funnel for discharging smoke from a locomotive, ship, factory, etc. and helping to induce a draft.


Virginia Department of Environmental Quality

Water Table

The level below which the ground is saturated with water.